Landscaping can turn your yard into a beautiful and vibrant mood booster. It also extends your living space, improves curb appeal, and increases the value of your home.
The average landscaping cost is $3,300 to $13,200, with a typical price range per square foot of $4.50 to $17. Prices vary widely based on the size and scope of the project. You could do some simple DIY landscaping for less than $2,000, or go for a sophisticated look with a premium budget of $40,000 or more.
Table of contents:
- Average costs
- Cost estimator by yard size
- Other factors that affect cost
- Related services
- DIY cost
- Cost by location
Average landscaping costs in 2023
|National average cost||$8,700|
|Typical price range||$3,300 – $13,200|
|Extreme low-end cost||$1,300|
|Extreme high-end cost||$40,000|
The table above includes the average cost and typical price range for an area of around 700 – 800 square feet and a landscaping design of intermediate complexity. Remember, it is only an estimate. Pricing can vary a lot depending on what specific landscaping services you want to include.
Large additions such as swimming pools, gazebos, and landscape ponds will take your budget towards the higher end. Anything custom-made is also more expensive than prefabricated alternatives.
To lower your cost and save money, you can:
- Draw the design yourself and have it checked by a landscape architect or designer (more details in the DIY section).
- Reuse and repurpose as much as possible from what you already have in your yard. Healthy trees, renovated patios and fences, pavers, and edging materials can lower your overall landscaping budget
- Buy local – from materials to native plants, local can be cheaper than having materials shipped from far away.
- Buy smaller/younger plants (they will grow in time).
- Consider replacing built-in seating and planters with outdoor furniture and containers.
- Think about landscaping in stages. You will still need to plan for the entire square footage of your yard eventually, but you can add structures one-by-one as your budget allows.
Landscaping cost estimator by yard size
To figure out a proper budget for the size of your yard, use the average landscaping cost range of $4.50 to $17 per square foot.
Remember that you should factor in only the area you will be remodeling. For example, let’s say you have a yard of 2,000 square feet total. You choose to landscape half while leaving the other half as a simple lawn or wild space. In this case, you should evaluate the landscaping price for only 1,000 square feet.
See typical costs for different project sizes below.
|Project Size||Typical overall cost (materials and installation)|
|500 sq. ft.||$2,250 – $8,500|
|1000 sq. ft.||$4,500 – $17,000|
|1500 sq. ft.||$6,750 – $25,500|
|2000 sq. ft.||$9,000 – $34,000|
|3000 sq. ft||$13,500 – $51,000|
Prices will vary with the type of landscaping services you want to include. Use these estimates as a starting point and adjust them to fit your needs. Read on for a specific cost breakdown of some of the most popular landscaping services.
Other factors that affect cost
There is a long and diverse list of services a landscaping company can offer. Some of them greatly influence your budget, others not so much. These services can be grouped into five basic categories:
It all starts with the initial consultation. This is when a landscape designer or architect visits your outdoor space and evaluates its design potential so they can create a unique plan for your property.
A landscape designer or architect’s expertise costs, on average, between $1,900 and $6,800 for the entire project and varies with:
- The size of your yard
- Project complexity
- The type of service: Some just give you a drawing of their design, some consult during installation, and some actually work directly with the landscape contractor to implement their ideas.
- Expertise: Impressive portfolios and lots of experience usually mean higher prices.
- Specialization: A landscape architect typically has higher fees than a designer.
That’s right, there’s a difference between a landscape architect and landscape designer:
- Choose a landscape designer if you need mostly above-the-surface remodeling (patio, pathways, grass, flowers, trees, etc).
- Go for an architect if your project also requires structural and functional interventions such as regrading, drainage, etc.
Landscape preparation services
These services get your yard ready for planting and building structures. You may only need some of these services, depending on the condition of your yard and the complexity of your landscape design. Here’s a list of the most popular.
|Yard preparation||Why you might need it||Typical price range|
|Soil testing||Test soil to figure out what type of plants will thrive in your garden.||$14.50 – $100 per project|
|Landscaping permits||Permits are necessary for some structures, such as fencing, electrical work, and in-ground pools.||$20 – $700 per project|
|Land survey||A land survey shows where your property begins to avoid planting or building on your neighbor’s land or too close to property lines.||$310 – $750 per project|
|Demolition of structures and hardscapes||Make room for new landscaping elements by getting rid of old ones.||$1,500 to $15,000 per project|
|Tree removal||Old or sick trees should be removed for safety and new planting.||$240 – $1,750 per tree|
|Tree stump removal||Clean the terrain for planting, installing utilities, or building structures.||$120 – $350 per stump|
|Landscape grading||Level the land and correct the slope to ensure efficient drainage and an even surface to work on.||$650 – $3,600 per project|
|Drainage system installation||Avoid puddles, rotten roots, withered plants, and house foundation problems.||$1,500 – $11,000per project|
|Sprinkler system||Helps you water grass, flowers, and trees easier and more efficiently.||$2,540 – $4,775|
|Fill dirt & topsoil||Needed to level the yard and fill in holes.||$6 – $17 per cubic yard (fill dirt)$11 – $53 per cubic yard (topsoil)|
Learn more about each of these services below or skip to Softscaping.
It’s essential to test the soil before landscaping if you:
- Have had problems with dying or undeveloped grass, flowers, or trees.
- Just moved into a new home, and you have no idea what the soil is like.
- Plan to invest in more sensitive or exotic flowers, shrubs, or trees.
Soil testing cost ranges from $14.50 to $100. You can collect soil samples and have them tested at a local university’s agriculture lab. You’ll receive a soil test report with data about soil pH, main nutrients, and structure (type of soil). Use this data to choose the best plants for your landscape.
Your landscape designer or contractor can tell you what permits you need for your project, if any. A permit can add anywhere from $20 to $700 to your total cost, with local regulations and fees varying significantly. You probably need a permit if:
- The landscaping project exceeds 2,500 square feet
- Lawn re-sloping changes yard grade by more than 24 inches
- You plan to install a swimming pool, a deck, or a retaining wall over 2 feet tall
- Landscaping requires additional electrical, gas, or plumbing lines
- You build a fence over four feet in height
- You’re removing a tree
Before planting trees or building decks and fences, you should know precisely where your property limits are. If you don’t know, request a land survey. The average cost is $310 to $750.
Demolition of structures and hardscapes
You can pay from $1,500 to $15,000 for demolition services. This includes taking down structures and removing debris. Before removing anything, consider renovating the existing hardscape to make it a part of the new design and save money.
The same principle goes for tree removal. The cost of removing a tree ranges from $385 to $1,070, and you’ll pay $25 – $3,000 to plant a new one. It also takes years for a small tree to grow. If you have a healthy tree in your garden, make an effort to keep it and build the new design around it instead of replacing it.
You can think of land grading as sculpting the terrain to prepare it for your new design. Grading is used to:
- Level uneven ground
- Reduce soil erosion on high-sloped terrain
- Improve drainage on flat yards (ideally, the terrain should have at least 2 degrees slope to help water drainage)
Land grading cost ranges from $650 to $3,600, depending on the size of your yard and what needs to be corrected.
Drainage system installation
If water does not drain properly, a lot can go wrong with your garden. Plan for an efficient drainage system when you design your yard. You can choose between the classic French drain and a bog or just set up an area in the garden where water can collect.
Drainage systems cost from $1,500 to $11,000, with most homeowners paying an average of $4,500 for materials and installation.
It’s easier to install pipes when you are already digging up the yard. A sprinkler system can add about $2,400 – $4,200 to your budget. It will also help you care for your beautiful plants with less effort. Pricing includes materials and labor.
Fill dirt & topsoil costs
You can pay between $6 and $17 for a cubic yard of fill dirt, while the average cost of topsoil is $10 to $50 per cubic yard. Both are needed to:
- Raise and level yards
- Re-slope gardens
- Improve soil drainage
If you’re having your landscape graded, fill dirt and topsoil will probably be included in the cost of that service.
Planting grass, flowers, bushes, trees, and other living plants is known as “softscaping.” Softscaping typically costs between $800 and $10,000 per project, but prices vary significantly with:
- The size of your yard
- The number, type, and size of plants you wish to install
Here are some prices to consider when planning a softscape.
|Plant||Typical price range|
|Grass seeding||$0.10 to $0.19 per square foot|
|Sod Installation||$0.90 to $1.80 per square foot|
|Artificial grass||$5.50 to $19.75 per square foot|
|Planting flower beds||$650 to $3,000 per flower bed|
|Planting trees and bushes||$25 to $3,000 per tree or bush, depending on plant size|
|Tree transplanting||$90 to $300 per tree|
You can learn more about these popular softscaping services below or go straight to Hardscaping.
Grass seeding vs. sod installation vs. artificial grass
Installing sod costs, on average, $0.90 to $1.80 per square foot, so it’s more expensive than seeding a lawn. But, your yard will be ready for guests immediately.
Grass seeding costs $0.10 to $0.19 per square foot. With seeds, you have to wait for the plants to sprout and grow, so it’s a more long-term approach.
You can also go for artificial turf. The average cost of artificial grass is $5.50 to $19.75 per square foot, but it comes with very low maintenance costs in the long run. Artificial turf eliminates:
- Weed control
- Other lawn care services you might need with natural grass
Planting flower beds
You can turn a bland yard into an attractive landscape with just a few flower beds. They can add texture and color, soften corners, surround a water fountain, or embrace a gazebo. Flower beds cost about $650 to $3,000 apiece to install from scratch (including labor and materials).
The cost varies with the number, type, and size of plants, so you can save money by:
- Choosing small plants that will grow later.
- Including perennial, low-maintenance, native plants
- Including blooming shrubs, which are more resistant to weeds than herbaceous flowers
Planting trees and bushes
Trees, shrubs, and bushes give your garden structure, texture, and depth. Because the cost to plant a tree or a bush ranges from $25 to $3000, it’s important to choose with care where and how many you need in your yard.
Again, you can save money by purchasing smaller, younger plants that will grow to their mature size over time.
Hardscaping includes all non-living elements in your garden, from stone pavers to brick patios and beautiful wooden gazebos. Hardscapes define the space and organize the yard, so you usually install them first, before planting.
Options are various in type and cost range, so the cost of hardscaping depends entirely on your design choices. See below the most popular items you can choose from.
|Hardscaping elements||Typical price range|
|Fencing||$2,000 – $4,500|
|Retaining wall||$3,600 – $9,500|
|Landscape curbing and edging||$700 – $1,750|
|Pathways & patios||$2,600 – $7,300|
|Deck||$3,920 – $10,540|
|Pergola||$2,100 – $6,000|
|Gazebo||$5,365 – $9,025|
|Landscape lighting||$2,100 – $4,900|
|Water feature||$1,140 – $3,690|
|Misting system installation||$1,800 – $3,400|
|Pond installation||$1,900 – $6,500|
|Greenhouse||$2,000 – $25,000|
|In-ground swimming pool||$32,400 – $60,875|
|Fire pit||$370 – $2,235|
|Outdoor kitchen||$5,055 – $17,275|
Learn more about the many different types of hardscaping below, or jump to Xeriscaping.
The typical cost of installing a fence ranges between $2,000 and $4,500. You will pay less for vinyl and wood fences and more for metal ones. The price also varies with height, so a small 2-foot tall fence will be less expensive than a 6-foot one. Check if you need a permit to build a fence in your area and what local regulations say about the fence height limit.
You can use a retaining wall to:
- Control water drainage
- Prevent soil erosion
- Add decorative value
Retaining walls can create semi-private spaces in your yard or separate two different areas. With a typical retaining wall cost of $3,565 to $9,645, it’s not exactly a cheap option, but built correctly, it will play a significant role in your garden. Keep in mind prices vary with size, materials, and terrain.
Landscape curbing and edging
Edging is one of the most affordable features you can use to improve the curb appeal of your property. These solid borders around landscaping elements help you:
- Shape flower beds and areas where bushes and trees are planted
- Frame pathways covered with mulch, stones, or rocks
- Separate different spaces
As for pricing, you can make your yard look neat and trim or even sophisticated with a budget of $700 to $1,750, which is the average cost of landscape curbing.
Walkways shield grass and plants from trampling while offering access for upkeep. They also organize your yard and give it a natural flow. On average, installing a walkway costs about $335 and $2,840. The cost varies with size and material:
- Porcelain and natural stone are the most costly.
- Stepping stones, concrete, and brick are medium-range.
- Mulch, pea gravel, and wood chips are the most affordable.
Patio vs. deck
Are you dreaming of a beautiful R and R zone in your yard? Choose a patio or a deck.
Decks are perfect for dining areas, outdoor kitchens, and comfortable chairs. The total cost of installing a deck usually falls between $3,920 and $10,540. A deck is a little bit more expensive than a patio, but decks have excellent resale value.
If you don’t want an elevated platform extending near your house, install a patio at the soil level in the middle of the yard. The average price for patio installation is $2,290 to $6,420 for a durable, low-maintenance product (lifespan up to 25 years). Add a fire pit, a barbeque, or soft garden sofas.
Pergola vs. gazebo
With a grid of interlinked beams as a roof, a pergola provides partial shade and an elegant frame for a beautiful recreation area. It’s usually installed on a patio but can also stand directly on the lawn. You can add this feature to your yard for an average pergola cost of $2,100 to $6,000.
The cost of a gazebo will add between $5,365 and $9,025 to your budget. A gazebo has a slightly raised floor and solid roof, providing better weather protection than a pergola. It’s blissful for sunny gardens and looks terrific in medium and large yards, where it often becomes the centerpiece of the landscape.
Outdoor lights will make your garden look lovely at night. They will also give your family safe passage through walkways and entries after dark. The average landscape lighting cost is around $2,100 to $4,900.
This is for a medium yard, materials and installation included. An ingenious way to save money is by using inexpensive string lights, aka fairy lights, to set your landscape aglow.
Adding a water feature to your backyard landscape makes it more relaxing. You can use a fountain to cool the air during hot summer days and relax by listening to its lovely sound. The average cost to install a water fountain is $1,140 to $3,690 and varies with size, materials, and water system.
Keep in mind that a water fountain can charge your electricity bill if it’s not solar-powered. Also, homeowners living in arid areas with water restrictions might not be able to use a model that does not recirculate water.
Misting system installation
Misters cool the air by spraying fine water and are great for hot summer days and nights. Install them in leisure areas like patios, decks, pergolas, or gazebos. Professional misting system installation costs range from $1,800 to $3,400, while low-end DIY kits can be purchased for up to $500.
With a pond, you add a relaxing water feature to your garden while keeping it natural and wild. The cost to install a pond usually falls between $1,900 and $6,500, depending on the size and the fish or vegetation you choose to include in and around the pond.
Don’t forget ponds also need maintenance, especially if you have fish living in them that need daily feeding. For example, koi pond annual maintenance costs from $350 to $2,000, including cleaning, refilling, and winterization.
Are you planning a new landscape to make room for growing vegetables? What about a greenhouse beside the classical raised beds? It gives you more control over the environment and a chance for year-round gardening.
The cost to install a greenhouse can be anywhere from $2,000 to $25,000, varying with size, material, and local labor costs. You can buy smaller models from garden stores and install them yourself to save money.
In-ground swimming pool
Fun and refreshing on hot summer days, an in-ground swimming pool can cost $32,400 to $60,875 to install in your backyard. Prices vary with size, type, and material. You can save money long-term by choosing fiberglass for durability. For a lower initial investment, go with a vinyl model or an above-ground pool.
A fire pit fits nicely on a patio or any area with comfortable seating. It makes the yard look friendly and cozy after dark, and it’s pretty affordable. The average cost to install a fire pit is $370 to $2,235, with higher values for custom-made options. You can save money buying a prefabricated model available in stores.
Installing an outdoor kitchen can cost, on average, $5,055 to $17,275. It’s a big range and an important decision. An outdoor kitchen is nice to have if you:
- Want to spend more time outdoors and love to cook
- Want a beautiful and entertaining place to spend time with family and friends
- Want to keep the heat out of the house while cooking in the summer
Don’t forget to check for required permits. Choose amenities and features wisely, since they will add to the total cost of your backyard kitchen.
Xeriscaping is a type of landscape design focused on reducing or eliminating the need to water your garden. It involves:
- Selecting native, drought-resistant plants.
- Arranging plants and hardscaping elements to reduce water evaporation and direct rainwater to green areas.
The average xeriscaping cost ranges from $11,600 to $20,000 for a 1,200 square foot yard. To estimate xeriscaping your outdoor space, consider an average price of $5 to $20 per square foot.
Where there’s a new landscape installation, landscape maintenance will follow. When juggling design ideas, keep in mind that most of the elements will require regular maintenance, such as tree and hedge trimming, lawn mowing, dethatching and aeration, pond cleaning, etc.
See below the average costs of the most important landscape maintenance services.
|Landscape maintenance services||Typical price range|
|Yard cleanup||$265 – $590|
|Lawn mowing||$50 – $190|
|Lawn aeration||$75 – $225|
|Lawn dethatching||$160 – $225|
|Lawn fertilization||$120 – $480|
|Weed removal||$65 – $170|
|Pest control||$55 – $170|
|Hedge trimming||$48 – $79 per hour|
|Bush trimming||$5 – $15 per bush|
|Tree trimming||$255 – $655 per tree|
|Mulching||$30 – $140|
To keep your garden looking trim and neat, have it cleaned at least twice a year, in spring and fall. Standard yard cleaning services include:
- Removing fallen branches, leaves, and debris
- Cleaning pathways, patios, and decks
- Taking off or putting on tree wraps
- Removing green waste
The average yard cleanup cost is $205 to $805 and varies with yard size and the specific tasks included.
Most homeowners mow the lawn periodically to keep it neat and beautiful. When hiring professionals to do it for you, the average lawn mowing cost is $50 to $190. It varies with lawn size and accessibility.
Lawn aeration and dethatching
Aerate and dethatch your lawn at least once a year. This helps water, air, and nutrients reach the roots. Lawn aeration costs range from $75 to $225. To remove the thatch layer (usually done before aeration), you will typically pay between $160 and $225.
Spreading fertilizer at least once a year keeps your grass lush and green. If you hire a pro, lawn fertilization services can cost from $120 to $480.
Remove weeds from your yard to help plants grow healthy and beautiful. Because it’s a time-consuming task, most homeowners use a landscape company. Weed removal typically costs $65 to $170.
Hedges are beautiful green walls of bushes and shrubs that you can use to define pathways or create hidden, private spaces in your yard. To keep their shape, they need to be trimmed from time to time. Professional hedge trimming costs range between $48 and $79 per hour.
If you added trees to your yard, you’ll also require tree trimming services every few years to keep them healthy, beautifully shaped, and away from rooftops and other built structures. Tree trimming cost typically ranges from $255 to $655 per tree.
Using mulch on flower beds and on the soil around bushes and trees helps to:
- Prevent weeds from growing
- Retain moisture longer in the soil
- Make your yard look neat and finished
Mulching costs from $30 to $140 per cubic yard. A cubic yard of mulch covers about 100 square feet at a depth of three inches. If you have a green thumb, you can save almost 50% (installation cost) by applying mulch to the garden yourself.
Cost of DIY landscaping
To save money, you can choose to draw your own landscaping plan for your outdoor space and verify it with an expert. It doesn’t need to be beautiful or artistic, but it must be as accurate as possible.
DIY landscape design cost breakdown
There are very few tools required to develop a landscape design. But you should be prepared to invest a lot of time and patience. See below the cost breakdown for a DIY landscape design.
|Open-reel measuring tape||$20|
|Professional consultation||$100 – $300 for a two-hour consultation|
|Total Cost:||$140 – $340|
How to landscape design DIY in 9 steps
We recommend you consider the DIY option only for yards with small to medium square footage and basic landscaping. It’s better to hire a pro for:
- Large gardens
- Intermediate to advanced projects
- Structural interventions at the soil level
These are the steps you should follow for a DIY landscape design to get good results:
Step 1: Measure your yard and draw a scale map on your graph paper. It’s essential to get the proportions right.
Step 2: Draw in the elements already present in your garden that you intend to keep (patio, deck, trees, etc).
Step 3: Make a list of activities you would like to do in your yard and the associated landscaping elements. For example:
- Cook and invite friends for dinner – outdoor kitchen and dining space on a patio
- Work outside – a private area far from the house, like a gazebo, with table and chairs
- Grow vegetables – small greenhouse or raised beds for vegetables
- Playground for children – lawn area and/or open space with sand, slide, swings, etc
Step 4: Add structures to your drawing, beginning with the biggest ones. Play around with different locations and ask your family’s opinion.
Step 5: Think of plants that can complement your design in a beautiful way. Focus on corners and edges. Research native species and their size at maturity.
Step 6: Add pathways to connect and separate areas.
Step 7: Plan outdoor lights for leisure areas, walkways, and entries.
Step 8: Schedule a consultation with a landscape architect or designer to check your ideas and get expert input.
DIY cost vs. professional cost of landscape design
With professional landscape design averaging at about $1,900 to $6,800, a DIY budget of $140 to $340 looks very attractive. But these savings come with a lot of work and the risk of not getting it right. What a pro has on you is a lot of experience with:
- Hardscape materials, structures, and how to combine theml
- Choosing the right plants, from types and species to colors, height at maturity, and the proper distance between them
- Taking advantage of corners and difficult spots
- Combining everything to look perfect but still natural
Installing a new flower bed DIY cost breakdown
The average cost to install a flower bed DIY is about $650 to $1,000. You can save money with:
- Homemade compost
- Native plants, perennials, and smaller plants that will grow later
- A more basic irrigation system
See below the cost breakdown for a 5 x 12 foot flower bed.
|Hand pruner / Pruning saw||$23|
|Spade or shovel||$31|
|Drip irrigation DIY kit||$17 – $350|
|Flowers (6 plants) at the average price of $36 per plant||$216|
|Mulch||$9 – $36|
|Total cost for installing a flower bed of 5 x 12 feet DIY||$653 – $1,016|
How to install a new flower bed DIY in 10 steps
Installing flower beds is a basic task you need to be familiar with if you want to landscape the yard DIY. It’s not complicated if you make sure to follow these steps:
Step 1: Check if any utility and irrigation lines are buried on your property. You don’t want to risk digging right on top of them.
Step 2: Define the shape and size of the flower bed. Use a hose or some rope to draw the form on the ground.
Step 3: Remove existing vegetation. You might need a hand pruner or a pruning saw for bushes or small trees.
Step 4: Dig the soil and turn it over. Use a spade or a shovel, and make sure you get at least 12 inches deep.
Step 5: Mix compost into the bed. Spread a layer of compost 2-3 inches thick, and then turn the soil to mix in the organic matter.
Step 6: Prevent weed germination by using a pre-emergent weed killer. Another option is to add a 2-3 inch layer of mulch (bark, pine needles) when you finish planting to prevent weeds from growing. You can also pull the weeds out when they start growing, but it takes more time and effort than you’d probably think.
Step 7: Install an irrigation system to avoid using the hose or a watering can. Drip tubing works very well with flower beds, and you can pick up a DIY drip kit at most home improvement stores (Lowe’s, Home Depot, etc).
Step 8: Plant the flowers. If you used weed killer, read the instructions to see when it’s safe to plant. Also, postpone seeding for the next season and buy already grown plants in pots or packages.
Step 9: Rake the soil to make it level.
Step 10: Add a layer of mulch, 2-3 inches thick, to slow weeds from growing.
DIY cost vs. professional cost of installing flower beds
Hiring a pro to install flower beds adds $1,000 to $3,000 to your landscaping budget. This is almost 3 times more than the DIY expenses. Still, it is better to use the services of a landscaping company when:
- You want to install large, complex flower beds
- The design includes more than 1 or 2 flower beds
- You intend to sell your house and are making some curb appeal improvements
- Flower beds include complicated irrigation
- You know you have buried utility lines in the area
Cost of landscaping by location
Location can take your budget lower or higher than the average price due to:
- Differences in labor, material, and permit costs between states
- The price of the plants that can grow in your climate zone
- Backyard vs front yard landscaping: backyard design is typically more complex and reaches higher prices
Yes, a beautiful yard can increase property value by up to 17%, especially if managed by a professional designer or architect.
Experts say you should use the value of your home when estimating landscaping costs. More precisely, 10% of your home’s market value. For example, if your house is valued at $300,000, then $30,000 would be a reasonable sum to invest in landscaping.
That depends on how much you are spending. If you budget your landscaping project to stay under 10% of your home’s value, you will get your money back if you ever sell your house, so the investment is literally worth it.
More importantly, though, consider the improvements that a beautiful, functional landscape can bring to your life and health.
Remodeling your yard can raise the value of your home by up to 17%. It also creates a beautiful, relaxing outdoor space for you and your family. You’ll pay an average landscaping cost of $3,000 to $13,200 that can be adjusted to fit your budget and ideas. Get in touch with a landscaper in your area and see what your garden could look like!
Note: Lawn Love may get a referral fee for matching you with contractors in your area.
Photo by Dylan Gillis on Unsplash